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Glossary Entries for Skintelligent Center

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Acne – is a common skin disease characterized by pimples on the face, chest, and back. It occurs when the pores of the skin become clogged with oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria.

Allergen – a substance, capable of inducing specific hypersensitivity or allergic reaction, that is is a consistent repeatable reaction, usually including any or a combination of redness and itching, to different skin areas. An allergic reaction in skin may take days or weeks to show up to the entire skin area where a substance comes into contact with skin.

Alphahydroxy Acid – any of various fruit acids with the capacity to trap moisture in the skin and initiate formation of collagen.

Aluminum Chlorhydrate – is a group of salts having the general formula AlnCl(3n-m)(OH)m. It is used in deodorants and antiperspirants and as a flocculant in water purification. *

Apricot Kernels – (Prunus armeniaca, “Armenian plum” in Latin) refer to the kernels of a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. *

Antioxidant – A chemical compound or substance that inhibits oxidation.* A substance, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, or beta-carotene, thought to protect body cells from the damaging effects of oxidation,such as the harm caused by free radicals.**

Atopic Dermatitis – a form of eczema, is a non-contagious disorder characterized by chronically inflamed skin and sometimes intolerable itching.

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Bearberry – (Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi, Sprengel), a small shrub, with decumbent, much branched, irregular stems and evergreen leaves, is distributed over the greater part of the Northern Hemisphere, being found in the northern latitudes and high mountains of Europe, Asia and America. Its infusion has a soothing as well as an astringent effect and marked diuretic action. *

Benzyl Alcohol – a clear, colorless, oily liquid, derived from certain balsams, used as a topical anesthetic and as a bacteriostatic agent in solutions for injection. Also called phenyl carbinol, phenyl methanol.

Betahydroxy Acid – refers specifically to salicylic acid, which is used in some anti-aging creams and acne treatments.

Bis-Ethylhexyloxyphenol Methoxyphenyl Triazine – also known as Bemotrizinol is an oil-soluble organic compound that is added to sunscreens to absorb UVB as well as UVA rays. *

Boots Star Rating – measures the UVA – UVB ratios for sunscreens. *

Bromhidrosis – bacterial breakdown of sweat and cellular debris resulting in a foul odor.

Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane – also termed as Avobenzone; it is a sunscreen agent, primarily a UVA-absorbing agent. *

Butylene Glycol – is a small organic alcohol used as solvent and skin-conditioning agent. *

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CAMP – (Contact Allergen Management Program) produces a list of specific product ingredients that might spur cross-reaction. It is the new allergen avoidance resource for American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) members. Its key features are: ability to print out or email patient list of safe products; updated resources, links, and educational materials; easy to navigate. *

Castor Oil – a colorless or pale yellowish oil extracted from the seeds of the castor-oil plant, used pharmaceutically as a laxative and skin softener and industrially as a lubricant.

Cell membrane – the semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell. Also called cytomembrane, plasmalemma, plasma membrane.

Chemical sunscreen – Chemical sunscreens absorb UV radiation; chemical sunscreens can be UVA or UVB absorbers. *

Citric Acid – a tricarboxylic acid obtained from citrus fruits that is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle; it chelates calcium ions and prevents blood clotting and functions as an anticoagulant for blood specimens and for stored whole blood and red cells. It is also used in the preparation of effervescent mixtures and as a synergist to enhance the action of antioxidants.

Clindamycin Phosphate – inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria at level of 50S ribosome, thereby inhibiting peptide bond formation and causing cell death. It reduces development of bacterial resistance and maintain drug efficacy, use only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

Cocamide – is a mixture of amides of the fatty acids obtained from coconut oil. As coconut oil contains about 50% of lauric acid, in formulas only the 12-carbon chains tend to be considered. Therefore the formula of cocamide can be written as CH3(CH2)10CONH2, though the number of carbon atoms in the chains varies (it is always even). Cocamide is the structural basis of many surfactants. Common are ethanolamines (cocamide MEA, cocamide DEA), or betaine compounds (cocamidopropyl betaine). *

Coco Betaine – is shorthand for the chemical cocamidopropyl betaine. This chemical is frequently used in soaps and shampoos, as well as some hair products. Coco betaine is derived from coconut oil, which has led to its description as a natural product. Coco betaine is used primarily as a mild surfactant, meaning that it is used for purposes that other soaps would be too harsh for, like baby shampoo. *

Cocos Nucifera – is the scientific name of coconut or virgin coconut oil.

Collagen – a fibrous insoluble protein consisting of bundles of tiny reticular fibrils that combine to form the white glistening inelastic fibers of the tendons, the ligaments, and the fascia. It is found in connective tissue, including skin, bone, ligaments, and cartilage. It represents 30% of total body protein.

Comedogen – a substance or agent that exacerbates or induces acne. *

Cosmeceutical – a cosmetic that has or is claimed to have medicinal properties. A product which delivers drug-like benefits through effective active ingredients, as well as their conjunctive therapy systems which maximize therapeutic effects while keeping skin healthy and comfortable throughout therapy.* It is a cosmetic that has or is purported to have medicinal properties. It is a pill, cream, etc., which allegedly decreases wrinkling, age spots, or otherwise improves one’s external appearance.**

Contact Dermatitis – is the name for any skin inflammation that occurs when the skin’s surface comes in contact with a substance originating outside the body. There are two kinds of contact dermatitis, irritant and allergic.

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Dermabrasion – a surgical procedure designed to remove skin imperfections, such as scars, by abrading the surface of the skin with fine sandpaper or wire brushes. Also called planing.

Dermatologist – a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders.

Dermatopathologist – the one that specializes in the diseases or lesions of the skin; Dermatopathology is especially concerned with lesions of the skin.

Dye – one of the most common allergen. any of various colored substances containing auxochromes and thus capable of coloring substances to which they are applied; used for staining and coloring, as test reagents, and as therapeutic agents.

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Eczema – a pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis characterized early by erythema, edema associated with a serous exudate in the epidermis and an inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, oozing and vesiculation, and crusting and scaling; and later by lichenification, thickening, signs of excoriations, and altered pigmentation.

Elastin – an elastic, fibrous mucoprotein, similar to collagen, and the major connective tissue protein of elastic fibers. Also called elasticin.

ESSCA – (i.e., European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies) Objective: Contact allergy is a frequent condition (with up to 20% of the general population affected), and its clinical manifestation – allergic contact dermatitis (incidence approximately 7 per 1000 per year)- has considerable socioeconomic impact. Recommendations concerning primary prevention must be founded on sound scientific knowledge concerning occurrence of allergen exposures in the population. To provide such data on a European scale, the expert network ESSCA has been conceived. The aim of ESSCA is the continuous analysis (surveillance) of pooled data for different purposes. This includes internal quality control, which is both a prerequisite, and an outcome of this multicentre activity. Furthermore, international comparisons which reflect the effects of a wider than strictly national allergen exposure variation, time-trend analyses, and subgroup analyses are performed, including the possible occurrence of known allergens in new exposure contexts. These analyses shall provide a valuable starting point for lowering the incidence of contact allergies. For industry, such analyses can serve the purpose of post marketing surveillance of product safety. *

Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate – is a clear liquid that is insoluble in water. Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate is used in the formulation of a wide variety of product types including sunscreens and makeup products that contain ingredients to protect the skin from the sun. *

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Fibroblasts – atype of cell found in connective tissue; produces collagen.

Folliculitis – is inflammation or infection of one or more hair follicles (openings in the skin that enclose hair).

Fragrance – one of the most common allergen. Masking fragrances are used to produce “unscented” products by masking the smell of the raw materials and ingredients used. A substance with fragrant properties; typically a combination of alcohols and essential oils with aromatic properties; derived from plant extracts or synthesized.

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Glycerin – a sweet, colorless oily fluid that is a pharmaceutic grade of glycerol. Glycerin is used as a moistening agent for chapped skin, an ingredient of suppositories for constipation, and a sweetening agent and vehicle for drug preparations. Also spelled glycerine.

Glyceryl Laurate – begins as glycerin and fatty acides. It is primarily used as a conditioning agent, emollient, surfactant and emulsifying agent in cosmetic products. There are forty-three glyceryl monoesters and because they have similar structures, most studies have reviewed them as a group. In recent studies, Glyceryl Laurate enhanced the penetration of drugs through skin in vitro and also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. *

Glycolic Acid – a colorless crystalline compound found in sugar beets, cane sugar, and unripe grapes that is used in pharmaceuticals and pesticides.

Green Tea – Camellia sinensis;part used: leaves (dried, unfermented); uses: antibacterial, anticancer, antilipidemic, antioxidant, diuretic, gum disease; precautions: patients with sensitivity to caffeine, kidney disease, or heart disease, or who are taking anticoagulant medications. Also called matsucha.

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Hyperhydrosis – inordinate perspiration.

Hyperpigmentation – is the increase in the natural color of the skin.

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In Vitro – A biological reaction occurring in a laboratory apparatus.* Located outside the organism in a simulated environment.**

In Vivo – within the living body.

Irritant – an agent that causes inflammation or irritant contact dermatitis that tends to include mild to severe stinging, burning, or sored sensations and are often inconsistent to different skin areas. Irritant reactions may quickly happen once a substance comes in contact with the skin, localized to some areas only.

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Kinetin – a plant hormone that promotes cell division.

Kojic Acid – (C6H6O4; 5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-pyrone) is a chelation agent produced by several species of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, which has the Japanese common name koji. Kojic acid is a by-product in the fermentation process of malting rice, for use in the manufacturing of sake, the Japanese rice wine.It is a mild inhibitor of the formation of pigment in plant and animal tissues, and is used in food and cosmetics to preserve or change colors of substances. It is used on cut fruits to prevent oxidative browning, in seafood to preserve pink and red colors, and in cosmetics to lighten skin. Kojic acid also has antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is also used in skin diseases like melasma.*

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Lanolin – a fatty substance obtained from wool and used in soaps, cosmetics, and ointments.* A fatlike substance from the wool of sheep. It contains about 25% water as a water-in-oil emulsion and is used as an ointment base and an emollient for the skin.**

Lipid – any of a heterogeneous group of fats and fatlike substances, including fatty acids, neutral fats, waxes, and steroids, which are water-insoluble and soluble in nonpolar solvents. Lipids, which are easily stored in the body, serve as a source of fuel, are an important constituent of cell structure, and serve other biological functions. Compound lipids comprise the glycolipids, lipoproteins, and phospholipids.

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Mandelic Acid – an acid that has both antibacterial and bacteriostatic properties, used in treating urinary tract infections.

Melasma – a patchy or generalized dark pigmentation of the skin.

Monoglyceride – a compound consisting of one molecule of fatty acid esterified to glycerol.

Monolaurin – A cooling, soothing disinfectant and antibacterial that is non-irritating, non-allergenic, and can provide additional protective benefits.* An orphan drug that may be used to manage congenital primary ichthyosis, nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, ichthyosis vulgaris, possibly seborrheic dermatitis. Monolaurin is found in coconut oil and human breast milk.**

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NACDG – (North American Contact Dermatitis Group) is an open society to promote, stimulate, support, develop and publish information about contact dermatitis and occupational skin disease. *

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Paraben – also known as hydroxybenzoate – an antioxidant used in food preservation; the butylated product is the standard form of usage. Also used as a preservative in pharmaceutical preparations.

Paraffin – A purified hydrocarbon wax used for embedding histological specimens and as a stiffening agent in pharmaceutical preparations. It is an alkane.

Patch Test – a skin test that is done to identify allergens. A suspected substance is applied to the skin. After 24-48 hours, if the area is red and swollen, the test is positive for that substance. If no reaction occurs, another substance is applied. This is continued until the patient experiences an allergic reaction where the irritant was applied to the skin.

Petrolatum – a purified mixture of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum; used as an ointment base, protective dressing, and soothing application to the skin.

PFA – (protection factor UVA) a protection from Ultraviolet light, type A. These are rays of light from the sun which are not visible but can cause damage to the skin. *

PFI – (protection factor indoor light) a protection factor under indoor light (e.g such as  light from a lamp).

PFV – (protection factor visible light) a protection factor under visible light.

Phenylbenzimidazole Sulfonic Acid – also known as ensulizole a water-soluble absorber of ultraviolet B radiation, used topically as asunscreen.

PH-level – A measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution based on the amount of hydrogen ions available. Based on a scale of 14, a pH of 7.0 is neutral. A pH below 7.0 is an acid; the lower the number, the stronger the acid. A pH above 7.0 is a base; the higher the number, the stronger the base. Blood pH is slightly alkaline (basic) with a normal range of 7.36-7.44.

Phthalate – (Chemistry) a salt or ester of phthalic acid. Esters are commonly used as plasticizers in PVC; when ingested they can cause kidney and liver damage.

Physical Sunscreen – topical product that reflects, scatters, and blocks the entire ultraviolet radiation spectrum physically. *

Phytic Acid – The hexaphosphoric acid ester of inositol, found in many plants and microorganisms and in animal tissues.* A component of some high-fiber foods, including many cereal grains that may, in excessive amounts, cause constipation or interfere with the body’s ability to absorb minerals.**

Pityrosporum – genus of nonpathogenic fungi found in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. *

Pityrosporum Folliculitis – (PF) is an inflammatory skin disorder that typically manifests as a pruritic, follicular papulopustular eruption distributed on the upper trunk of young to middle-aged adults.

Preservatives – food additives that hinder spoilage by reducing the growth of microorganisms. Include nitrates and nitrites, benzoates and sulfites, and many others.

Psoriasis – named for the Greek word psora meaning “itch,” psoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious disease characterized by inflamed lesions covered with silvery-white scabs of dead skin.

Pumice – A very light porous volcanic scoria, usually of a gray colour, the pores of which are capillary and parallel, giving it a fibrous structure. It is supposed to be produced by the disengagement of watery vapor without liquid or plastic lava. It is much used, especially. In the form of powder, for smoothing and polishing.* A substance consisting of silicates of aluminum, potassium, and sodium; used in dentistry as an abrasive.**

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Retinoic Acid – An oxidized derivative of retinol, believed to be the form of vitamin A that plays a role in the development and growth of bone and in the maintenance of normal epithelial structures. In pharmacology, it often denotes the all-trans isomer (tretinoin); the 13-cis isomer is usually called isotretinoin.* An acid formed in the oxidation of retinaldehyde and used as a topical treatment for acne. Also called vitamin A acid. **

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Salicylic Acid – A white crystalline acid used in making aspirin and in the topical treatment of skin conditions such as eczema.* An agent prescribed in the treatment of hyperkeratotic skin conditions and fungal infections.**

Saturated Fatty Acid – a fatty acid in which all of the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are joined by single bonds. They exist mostly as components of fats (triglycerides) or other lipids of animal origin. Foods rich in saturated fatty acids include beef, lamb, pork, veal, whole-milk products, butter, most cheeses, and a few plant products such as cocoa butter, coconut oil, and palm oil. A diet high in saturated fatty acids may contribute to a high serum cholesterol level and appears to be associated with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease in some populations.

Seborrheic Dermatitis – is a common inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by scaly lesions usually on the scalp, hairline, and face. Seborrheic dermatitis appears as red, inflamed skin covered by greasy or dry scales that may be white, yellowish, or gray. It can effect the scalp, eyebrows, forehead, face, folds around the nose and ears, the chest, armpits (axilla), and groin. Dandruff and cradle cap are mild forms of seborrheic dermatitis, and appear as fine white scales without inflammation.

Skinfatuation – inspiration with an intense passion or admiration for. Derivatives: Skinfatuated.

Skingenious – clever, original, resourceful and inventive.

Skinimitable – incomparable, unparalleled, unrivaled, matchless, unequaled, unsurpassable, superlative, supreme, perfect, beyond compare, second to none, in a class of one’s own; unique, distinctive. Derivative: Skinimitability.

Skinittygritty – the basics, essentials, fundamentals, substance, quintessence, heart of the matter.

Skintastic – marvelous, wonderful, dazzling, superb.

Skintellectual – very smart, well-informed, information hungry, researchers, skeptical, not swayed by trends, impacted by legitimacy.

Skintelligence – ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.

Skinthusiasm – intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval.

Skinthusiastic – excited by “finds”; eager brand champions.

Skinovation – skin care breakthrough; new measures, new methods, modernization, novelty, newness; creativity, originality, ingenuity, inspiration, inventiveness.

SPF – Abbreviation for sunscreen protective factor index.* The ratio of the length of exposure to the sun required to produce a given level of erythaema before the application of sunscreen to the length of exposure required to produce such erythema after the application of sunscreen.**

Stearic Acid – A colorless, odorless, waxlike fatty acid occurring naturally in animal and vegetable fats and used in pharmaceutical preparations, ointments, or soaps.* A saturated fatty acid from animal and vegetable fats, used as a tablet and capsule lubricant and as an emulsifying and solubilizing agent.**

Surfactant – an agent, such as soap or detergent, dissolved in water to reduce its surface tension or the tension at the interface between the water and another liquid.

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Tetrasodium EDTA – Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid; a crystalline acid that acts as a strong chelating agent and that forms a sodium salt used as an antidote for metal poisoning and as an anticoagulant.

Titanium Dioxide – also known as titanium (IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6, or CI 77891. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food colouring. *

Tocopheryl Acetate – Also known as vitamin E acetate, is a common vitamin supplement with the molecular formula C31H52O3(for ‘α’ form). It is the ester of acetic acid and tocopherol (vitamin E). It is often used in dermatological products such as skin creams. Some websites have incorrectly linked tocopheryl acetate to cancer, misinterpreting the studies they reference. There are no links between Tocopheryl acetate and cancer and the product is on the safe list of cosmetic ingredients in both the EU and North America.* Tocopheryl acetate is used as an alternative to tocopherol itself because the phenolic hydroxyl group is blocked, providing a less acidic product. It is believed that the acetate is slowly hydrolyzed once it is absorbed into the skin, regenerating tocopherol and providing protection against the sun’s ultraviolet rays.**

Triethanolamine – often abbreviated as TEA, is an organic chemical compound which is both a tertiary amine and a triol. A triol is a molecule with three alcohol groups. Like other amines, triethanolamine is a strong base due to the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom. Triethanolamine can also be abbreviated as TEOA, which can help to distinguish it from triethylamine. Triethanolamine is used primarily as an emulsifier and surfactant. It also serves as a pH balancer in many different cosmetic products – ranging from cleansing creams and milks, skin lotions, eye gels, moisturizers, shampoos, shaving foams etc.

Tyrosinase – A copper-containing enzyme of plant and animal tissues that catalyzes the production of melanin and other pigments from tyrosine by oxidation, as in the blackening of a peeled or sliced potato exposed to air.* Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Biochemistry: an enzyme occurring in many organisms that is a catalyst in the conversion of tyrosine to the pigment melanin.**

T-zone – is the area of the face that is the most prone area where the acne occurs. The T-Zone starts from the middle and sides of the forehead and extends down the middle of the nose including a little bit of the sides of the nose as well and then goes down to involve the chin. This zone is also called the area that is very much prone of developing a great deal of acne lesions and where the most breakouts occur. *

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Unsaturated Fatty Acid – A fatty acid, such as oleic acid, whose carbon chain possesses one or more double or triple bonds and hence can incorporate additional hydrogen atoms.* A fatty acid in which some of the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are joined by double or triple bonds. These bonds are easily split in chemical reactions, and other substances may be joined to the carbon atoms involved. Monounsaturated fatty acids have only one double or triple bond per molecule and are found as components of fats (triglycerides) in such foods as fowl, almonds, pecans, cashew nuts, peanuts, and olive oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one double or triple bond per molecule and are found in fish, corn, walnuts, sunflower seeds, soybeans, cottonseeds, and safflower oil. Diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in saturated fatty acids have been correlated with low serum cholesterol levels in some study populations.**

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VH-Rating – Validated Hypoallergenic Rating System; measures the number of allergens omitted from a formulation based on published lists of the NACDG + ESSCA (North American Contact Dermatitis Group + European Surveillance System of Contact Allergens); e.g., VH – 76/76 = Validated Hypoallergenic minus all 76 allergens.

VCO – i.e., virgin coconut oil, a nearly colorless or yellow oil from fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera) or from copra (dried coconut); used in foods, in making soap, and as a raw material in fatty-acid production.* It is derived from a plant made up of fatty acids uniquely different from all other vegetable or seed oils. Coconut oil’s fatty acids are mostly medium chain, which are less fattening. Regular use of coconut oil softens, protects, and heals skin and hair dried out by the sun and the sea. Coconut oil has potential of broad-spectrum antiseptic properties to remove or prevent skin infections.**

Vitamin C – Another name for ascorbic acid.* A water-soluble vitamin important for healthy skin, teeth, bones, and blood vessels. It is found especially in citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, and green leafy vegetables. A deficiency of vitamin C in the diet causes scurvy. Also called ascorbic acid. Chemical formula: C6H8O6.**

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Zinc Oxide – An amorphous white or yellowish powder, ZnO, used as a pigment, in compounding rubber, in the manufacture of plastics, and in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Also called Chinese white, zinc white.* It is an inorganic oxide used as a colorant and sunscreen agent.** A white insoluble powder used as a pigment in paints (zinc white or Chinese white), cosmetics, glass, and printing inks. It is an antiseptic and astringent and is used in making zinc ointment.***

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4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor – (also 4-MBC) is an organic camphor derivative that is used in the cosmetic industry for its ability to protect the skin against UV, specifically UV B radiation. It is an ultraviolet light absorber used in sunscreen lotions and other skincare products claiming a SPF value.* **

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | 0-9